PDF Dialogue as a Collective Means of Design Conversation: v. 2

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Friend: And, on Monday to go to the meeetup after work. Me: What time do you leave work? Me: Cool!

Dialogue as a Collective Means of Design Conversation: v. 2

I will remind you to go to the meetup at pm on Mon, Apr 10th. Friend: Also, remind me to call mom every day at 4. As you can see from this example. I did a similar activity for all the other intents I had listed in Step 1. Use the dialog flows you documented in Step 3 to create flow diagrams for each intent. Creating flows helps you articulate and critique the interaction early on.

As you can see, updating reminders, the way I have here, turns out to be a multi-step process with a lot of back and forth communication. This also means added complexity, uncertainty and increased chances of error at each step. For updating reminders, I decided to augment the conversational UI with a graphical UI interaction where set reminders are always visible with edit and cancel options next to them — see UI sketch below.

If you can, reduce the number of decision boxes without compromising the user experience.


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Explore if you can augment the conversational UI with a graphical UI. A little help from Graphical UI enabled me to reduce additional back and forth communication and simplify the flow significantly. It also enhanced the user experience by giving visibility of existing reminders. Here is the updated flow —. After you have defined the flows for key intents, consider these scenarios as well —. Reset or next intent — What will your bot do after the task has been performed? You can either leave it at Resolution and reset it for next input or you can move on to another intent.

Switching intents — Since the interaction is conversational users can switch intents on your chatbot. For instance, while the bot is still waiting for input on the Time for Reminder, the user can ask the bot to update an existing reminder. You need to decide if you are going to support switching intents and in what cases, and design additional flows based on the approach you decide to take. Allowing users to switch intents might add some flexibility to your interactions but can also create additional cognitive load for them. Abandon Flow — Have you ever faced a scenario when you are chatting with a friend and all of sudden they stop responding maybe because they got a phone call.

This will happen to your chatbot as well. You need to plan for this.

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Have a timeout for each input and remind the user upon inactivity. Here are some of the scenarios to keep in mind while writing your script. Onboarding — Conversational UI can create additional cognitive load on users trying to figure out how they can interact with your bot, especially first time users.

Write a script explaining what your bot does and how users can interact with it. Be upfront and explanatory — provide a sample statement if needed. Here is an example — Hello Mike! I am your personal reminder bot. Just tell me what I can remind you of and when. Missing or ambiguous inputs — Your bot will need certain inputs from users to be able to service them. Assume users are going to miss key inputs and write a script for each missing user input. Here is one for Setting Reminders:.

You can also combine 2 statements into 1 in the case of missing inputs like date and time. However, exercise caution with this approach — combining 2 asks can sometimes confuse users. Resolution and next intent — What would your bot say after it has performed the task it was asked to? Here is an example for setting reminders — You got it! If you plan to move to another intent after resolution, you might want to add that to the dialog.

Switching intents — In the previous step, we went over the decision of whether or not you are going to support switching intents. Here is how the script for the 2 approaches might look like. Do you still want that reminder-. Fallback — Design a fallback script where your bot has no clue on how to respond. This will happen more frequently than you think.

Once you have the flows and the scripts for intents, it is time to bring all the good stuff you have worked on together as you would with pieces of a puzzle.

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You can sketch the interaction on paper or use any design tool — whatever you are comfortable with. You have the first design for you chatbot interaction. Once you have the interaction defined, I would highly encourage you to build a prototype and test it out. There are few tools out there that you can use without writing a single line of code. Good luck with your chatbot endeavor! Please add your bot design experiences to comments below. During the embryonic development of mammals, for instance, the cells, as they divide and multiply, become progressively differentiated and organized into tissues and organs.

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  8. Notably, humans and horses differ not by virtue of the basic cellular mechanisms that sustain their life, but because the DNA within their cells codes for a species-specific and individual-specific hereditary blueprint that shapes the unfolding structure, process, and function of their developing life form.

    Humans and Horses simply followed a different evolutionary path. As noted by De Duve, by examining differences in the amino acid sequences of proteins that exist in all living organisms microbiologists studying cells have confirmed what paleontologists studying fossil records have previously judged true: humans and horses are derived from a common mammalian ancestor from which they diverged some 80 million years ago [iv].

    Naturally, when our time perspective expands to embrace biological evolution we immediately transcend a simple focus on the individual, and a simple focus on Homo sapiens alone. We embrace the fullness of our ecosystem — that great community of living organisms that interact with one another and with sunlight, air, water, soil and other aspects of their non-living environment.

    We begin to perceive the complexity of social-ecological systems [v] and the challenge of system change. We accept that Homo sapiens are not alone in the ongoing challenge to sustain their life and uphold some semblance of resilience and well-being. One way or another, we recognize that we are immersed in a great web of life, with complex interdependencies connecting us with other species. The challenge of survival, adaptation, and flourishing plays out at a population level across species in the ecosystem.

    Having said that, population thinking is relatively new on the scene, even for biologists. Rather than view species as fixed types, Darwin viewed species as populations that carry a variable pool of inherited information through time. Rather than ask how individuals interact with their environment, Darwin asked us to consider how a population of individuals interact with their environment and each other over time. Long before the gene was identified as the structural unit marking variation and long before mutation, segregation, meiotic drive and other processes shaping populations were understood, Darwin documented variation at the population level and identified a pattern: specifically, he argued that if individuals carrying some variant are more likely to survive and have more offspring in a particular environment, these variants can spread in the population through a process of natural selection.

    The key issue is whether or not individuals can survive in a particular environment, and of course, the environment can change in dynamic ways. Ultimately, the process of natural selection shaped the kinds of genetic information that fostered adjustment to and survival within different environments. Over time, many different species emerged, each adapted to specific environmental niches.

    In structure, process, and function, the collection of organisms on our planet unfolded like an expanding series of branches and leaves on a tree [ix].

    An awareness of natural selection and biological evolution resulted in some Homo sapiens averting their gaze from Heaven and other forms of divine navel-gazing, to focus instead on the world around them and the powerful significance of their natural environment. Some of the long-standing, historical delusions that had arisen in culture through the misapplication of linguistic, graphical, and mathematical capabilities were slowly dissolving. Scientific thinking and critical thinking increasingly served to ground the run-away imagination of Homo sapiens. With an expanded time perspective, Homo sapiens began to think about history, cultural evolution, and human development in different ways.

    The analysis of living systems and system dynamics has generated a number of unifying frameworks that cross biological, social, and environmental sciences, much of this inspired by the general systems view developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy [x].

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    For example, it is commonly noted that all living systems are open systems, that is, open to the exchange of energy with the environment. Living systems support their life by exploiting external energy forms. By gathering energy and using it in ways that maintain itself, a living system can achieve requisite stability, consistency, order, and adaptive flexibly within a changeable environment.

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    As Nobel-Prize winning physiologist, Charles Sherrington described it, life operates as a delicate energy-system, a system whose energy is partly used to maintain itself, for example, through nutrition , growth, excretion, mass movement of its parts, and reproduction [xi]. Ludwig von Bertalanffy highlighted the importance of stability, consistency, and order in a particular way, introducing new terminology and language that supported a deeper inquiry into the nature of systems.

    As noted by Bertalanffy:. Within every living system, there is ceaseless construction work of all sorts taking place. Stated another way, a living system maintains a delicate balance between the gain and loss of energy and order, between negentropy and entropy. Living systems move through different states of energy and order over time, and although no one state of energy and order is maintained for long, living systems are constantly working to maintain a state of dynamic equilibrium [xii].

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    Like other living systems, Homo sapiens can die in any number of different ways, but in the natural course of events, with normal aging of individuals, there is movement from a state of order to a state of disorder in the living system before it dies. Consider the immune, endocrine , and nervous systems of Homo sapiens, which interact with each other by means of cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and which are similar in many respects across mammals [xiii].

    The functioning of each system is dependent on the functioning of the other systems, and thus changes to one system will lead to changes in the other systems. For individual organisms, dynamic equilibrium cannot be sustained forever. Naturally, individuals will die, but members of their group, their species, may survive, and their species may evolve from generation to generation. When we focus on the evolution and sustainability of living systems, our thinking about sustainability invariably leads to a parallel focus on the resilience i.

    At the ecological level of analysis i. Sustainability is an ideal state that is never achieved per se.