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- Explore all of York's history, from prehistoric to present day.
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The Jewish community in York did recover after the massacre and a Jewish presence remained in York until the expulsion of Jews from England in York prospered during much of the later medieval era and this is reflected in the built environment. Twenty medieval parish churches survive in whole or in part, though only eight of these are regularly used for worship. The medieval city walls , with their entrance gates, known as bars , encompassed virtually the entire city and survive to this day.
The city was also designated as a county corporate , giving it effective county status. It is in this period that the York Mystery Plays , a regular cycle of religious pageants or plays associated with the Corpus Christi cycle and performed by the various craft guilds grew up. Among the more important personages associated with this period was Nicholas Blackburn senior, Lord Mayor in and a leading merchant. The construction of the city's new Guildhall around the middle of the century can be seen as an attempt to project civic confidence in the face of growing uncertainty.
Brandsby-type ware and Humber ware ceramics were popular in the city at this time. Dating from the later medieval era, and now a popular tourist attraction, is the Shambles , a street of timber-framed shops originally occupied by butchers. Some retain the outdoor shelves and the hooks on which meat was displayed.
They have overhanging upper floors and are now largely souvenir shops. Few buildings of significance were put up in the century after the completion of the Minster in , the exceptions being the completion of the King's Manor which from to housed the Council of the North and the rebuilding of the church of St.
Michael le Belfrey , where Guy Fawkes was baptised in During the dissolution of the monasteries all the monastic institutions in the City were closed including St. Leonards Hospital and in St. Mary's Abbey. Despite the English Reformation making the practice of Roman Catholicism illegal, a Catholic Christian community remained in York although this was mainly in secret. Its members included St. Margaret Clitherow who was executed in for harbouring a priest  and Guy Fawkes who tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament in Subsequently, during the English Civil War , the city was regarded as a Royalist stronghold and was besieged and eventually captured by Parliamentary forces under Lord Fairfax in After the war, York slowly regained its former pre-eminence in the North, and, by , was the third-largest city in England after London and Norwich.
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In the Bar Convent was founded, in secret due to anti-catholic Laws, making it the oldest surviving convent in England. York elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons. The Judges Lodgings is a Grade I listed townhouse that was built between and and later used to house judges when they attended the quarterly sessions of the Assizes at York Castle. Turpin is buried in the churchyard of St George's Church , where his tombstone also shows his alias, John Palmer. In , the city's first hospital, York County Hospital, opened in Monkgate and it moved into larger premises in The building was funded by public subscription.
In Quaker William Tuke founded The Retreat , a hospital for the mentally ill , situated in the east of the city outside the city walls, which used moral treatment. The Colliergate drill hall was completed in  and the Tower Street drill hall was completed in On 29 April , York was bombed as part of the retaliatory Baedeker Blitz by the German Luftwaffe ; 92 people were killed and hundreds injured.
It was opened on 16 December , was in operation until , and was then turned into a museum owned by English Heritage. The date marked years of army in York.
In the National Railway Museum was opened, near the centre of York. In October and November the River Ouse rose and York experienced very severe flooding; over houses were flooded though no-one was seriously hurt. The Yorkshire Museum in around Low Petergate looking toward Bootham Bar in around From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Eboracum. English Heritage: Book of York 1st ed.
The Princes in the Tower
Batsford Ltd. The illustrated portrait of York 4th ed. Robert Hale Limited.
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City of York Council. Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 1 October York — the second city. Jarrold Publishing. Roman Life at the Yorkshire Museum. The Yorkshire Museum.
History of York
New Advent. Retrieved 25 October Town Origins and Development in Early England, c. Greenwood Publishing Group. Harper Collins Publishers.